Michael Apter, Ph.D.

Michael Apter is a British psychologist who is the prime originator of reversal theory. He has, over his career, written or edited thirteen books and numerous research papers and chapters. Although reversal theory is at the heart of this body of work, he has written on many topics including biological development, educational technology, computer simulation, humour, aesthetic experience, religion and crime.

He received his bachelor’s degree from Bristol University in 1960, and his Ph.D in 1965. While working for his doctorate he spent a year at Princeton and a year at King?s College London, as well as a term at Oxford. Much of his career since then has been in the academic world. He was for many years at the University of Wales in Cardiff, where he worked his way up to the position of Reader. He has also held a number of Visiting Professorships around the world, including at Bergen (Norway), Barcelona (Spain) and the University of British Columbia (Canada). In the U.S. he has been a visiting professor at Purdue, Northwestern, University of Chicago, Yale, and Georgetown. His career has also included a spell in industry, and a period as director of a residential home for the elderly.

His collaboration on reversal theory with researcher and practitioners around the world has led to much travel. Among other things, eight international conferences have taken place on his theory, in Wales, Canada (twice), Holland, Norway, England, Australia and the U.S.A.

Michael Apter is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society, and a Life Fellow of the Netherlands Institute of Advanced Studies. He resides in Virginia, but keeps an apartment in Spain (Barcelona), and is married to an American psychologist. He has a daughter and two step daughters.

He is the Director of Apter International, a management consultancy company which is based in the U.K.